www.55kcd.com_www.55kcd.com-【客户服务】

来源:大摩:申洲国际目标价降至110元维持增持评级  作者:   发表时间:2019-10-22 08:11:15

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.

  TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.

  Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

编辑:www.55kcd.com_www.55kcd.com-【客户服务】

未经授权许可,不得转载或镜像
© Copyright © 1997-2017 by ayqiandai.com all rights reserved

百站百胜: 23+14+7+休息3分钟!詹姆斯19年最开心的单场 波音巨额订单幻灭国产大飞机迎新机 孙杨创赛季最佳夺首金他为何再度泪洒赛场?(图) 追一科技完成C轮4100万美元融资招商局资本领投 又吵架了?他被勇士队内禁赛1场原因是这行为 美空军演练战机快速人员交换可提高F35作战效率 直击|马云:在基础科学上希望有所作为 野村:中国建材目标价升至6元维持中性评级 收购smart,吉利再扩汽车帝国版图 交银国际:联邦制药降至中性评级目标价降至5.4港元 道明银行:面对鸽派央行主要货币陷入“竞次” 诡异的微微一笑!水花最精彩镜头在场下 这位美元大多头语出惊人:飙到120不是问题? 俄罗斯总统普京申报去年个人收入将按惯例于4月公示 一图看懂:过去200年美国人口分布的变迁 上汽大众T-Cross预售开启将于4月11日上市 姚晨入戏了!穿着苏明玉同款“大哥廓西”不脱了 花旗:永达汽车目标价升至8.1元买入评级 张碧晨因“出轨”被谢娜封杀?二人深夜互动澄清一切 健力宝原副总外逃17年归案当年的窝案是咋回事? 有马甲线的更美6组动作练出马甲线! 深度:地方政府债务专题研究(附31省市债务负担数据) 乌克兰大选初步结果:喜剧演员与现总统将一决胜负 从今往后,腾讯开始赚辛苦钱 中国铝业去年少赚47%由于铝价跌及原材料价格升 宣美自曝增重八公斤晒照穿渔网丝袜纤瘦依旧 联合国副秘书长刘振民:为什么一定要讨论前沿科技? 大飞机学院落地鄂尔多斯:为国产大飞机输送人才 小桔充电与部分充电桩运营商分手 稍有闪失就被罚?商业银行理财销售合规手册不可不看 专家谈多款APP被疑窃听:成本太高,企业应不会冒险 皇马锁定英超两大天王巨星!阿扎尔+利物浦黑煞 英国或“硬脱欧”食品贸易进出口问题成隐忧 卡塔尔赛昕雯联播组合进八强许昕:第三局有失误 响水爆炸遇难者七日祭:他们的故事应当被记录 苹果推出游戏订阅服务不被看好大部分玩家不买账 交往中给不了你这些“特权”,就放手吧 完全大变样第十代索纳塔全球首秀 翼龙无人机在国外失联外军准备搜寻残骸时却回来了 赢了!整个湖人替补席都疯了!格林被晃飞数米 美国第34届洛杉矶马拉松开跑华人跑手踊跃参加 短短半月杨紫被曝2次抄袭,网友:工作室都是猪队友 想要12艘航母?美海军玩了招“以退为进” “降息”呼声重现美联储二把手强调决策将保持耐心 菲律宾主帅:0-8对我们有点大这种打击是一种受难 华为陈黎芳:任何组织提出安装后门华为坚决不会配合 吴宣仪愚人节丢失行李善意提醒玩笑也要适可而止 法巴:腾讯目标价升至390元维持买入评级 51岁许戈辉素颜近照曝光 4月起这批新规将陆续施行哪项对你生活影响最大? 华融金控去年亏损15.48亿元不派息 中泰国际:国泰君安国际维持买入评级目标价2.19元 雨润亏损超47亿港元祝义材回归后32岁女儿接管大权 德银:青啤目标价至36港元维持持有评级 扬州一工地6人坠亡新京报:信息通报宜早不宜晚 河北新乐“牛奶水”浇麦“绿茶水”浇树官方介入调查 瑞信:万科企业目标价升至32.7元维持中性评级 4月1日起出入境证件“全国通办”可通过支付宝预约 不是冤家不聚头加拿大和美国又吵起来了 美华裔网球小将高中自学上哈佛笑称有“虎爸虎妈” 新东方在线挂牌首日破发:获客成本提升毛利率下跌 新浪观影团《雷霆沙赞!》IMAX3D版卢米埃抢票 麦格理:嘉里物流维持跑赢大市评级目标价15.3元 达索系统CEO:制造业正在快速转型 网友热议未来球王:大罗之后最全能强过同龄梅西 中国通号建议A股发行获批拟发行不超21.97亿股A股 西媒:阿扎尔转会皇马已基本完成今夏将正式加盟 一年损失数十亿是欧佩克拼命减产的另一个理由 深度|0胜29负耻辱下仨毛头小子成战神的希望 何小鹏:2021年电动汽车将进入新阶段目前是成长期 花滑世锦赛有喜有忧冬奥新周期中国队路在何方? 特斯拉因环保问题不达标被罚31000美元 泸州银行去年多赚6.4%息15分 《权游》最终季后将出纪录片两小时讲述幕后故事 法联杯-斯特拉斯堡点球战胜甘冈14年后再次夺冠 剑桥大学回应承认中国高考成绩:已执行数年 叶诗文游出5年来最佳!进世界前3她还有更多能量 挂帅出征中央扫黑督导组组长今天亮相 吃下去的益生菌,你怎么知道它不会变异? 北京体育文化郑永富辞任执行董事等职务 联手话题人物朱骏贾跃亭造车“以退为进” 官员:特朗普渴望与脱欧后的英国达成贸易协议 中金:2018年11月起消费者信心指数反弹3月CPI… 万科2018年净利337.7亿新项目集中在一二线 章泽辟谣离婚后首次露面:现身香港手上似乎未戴婚戒 与同门5人对抗孙杨称“组里测验”出发最慢不气馁 最容易被忽略的投资风险:踏空 科创板“开闸”19家公司“临考” 大和:中国建筑国际降至跑赢大市评级目标价降至8元 德银:北京控股目标价升至56.9元维持买入评级 国泰航空飙升3%传日内公布收购香港快运 看着都疼!郑达伦舍命铲射追平大腿根怼中门柱 “盈玺巨玺”集资诈骗案金额达23亿首犯被判无期 挪威邮轮遇险获救乘客:像经历了泰坦尼克号事故 李光洁谈郭凡导演:愿意和对的人一起共事 开盘:中国数据强劲美股周一高开道指涨200点 再次落空暗物质新实验未发现轴子证据 各界人士沉痛送别海南省政协原副主席李富林 中国留学生在加拿大遭绑架案情有新进展 足协杯第三轮抽签明晚举行颜骏凌蒋圣龙现场助阵 皮蓬44岁妻子拥有不符年龄的高颜值身材超好 库里又破三分纪录!这一举动是跟裁判杠上了 奇葩地方官放款1100万61场借贷官司几乎全胜诉 辽宁球迷看了要沉默!福建发布凶残战前海报 银行首次开售地方债:100元起投你借不借? 吉林大学女生遭男子骚扰并被啤酒瓶打伤警方介入 乌克兰总统候选人喊话普京“归还领土”克宫回应 业界大佬谈工业互联网:是未来也是一场持久战 Grab总裁马明:共享经济在东南亚还有很大的发展空间 科学家找到了控制吃盐和喝水的神经机理 球迷热议国足垫底:恭喜闯进四强中国杯劳民伤财 广汽集团2018年净利润109亿元同比增1.08% 烘焙第一股克莉丝汀去年亏损增八成品牌力持续衰退 资本加持酒业新零售终端之战全线打响 配资春又回配出一个大牛市? 3只突破新高的大盘股,哪一只还值得买入? 北京皮卡销量猛增“解禁”传言不可信 有才天下猎聘拟9.44亿元收购长沙冉星 外媒:毕加索画作失窃20年找到故事曾被拍进电影 沈阳一交警队发生纵火爆炸袭警案,爆炸物致1死3伤 德媒:为了不让中国抢先载人登月美把安全放第二位 华为高官:华为绝不会配合任何政府或情报部门 涨70%到跌20%!九城联手贾跃亭造车后股价上演过山车 现代密码学之父迪菲:2100年人类不会是世上最重要的 梅西:我的儿子问我为什么在阿根廷人们要杀了我 儿童也要预防肥胖 曼联彻底抛弃穆里尼奥建队思路!不想再被坑了 遇难林草局长杨达瓦:每次都率先赶往火灾现场 波波维奇:吉诺比利来之前,我从来都不会骂人 中国足协:归化球员要培养爱国主义情怀 農委會在卡訂單?韓國瑜:態度有問題應不分彼此改善基層… 赵长江:比亚迪要用强大产品矩阵提振中国车市 金菓EVSF5混动版谍照与SF5概念车维持一致设计 范丞丞自曝心酸日常:每天只睡两三个小时 中国第一枚“OS-M”系列民营运载火箭首次发射失败 新京报:打击流量造假需要全平台治理 美军欲将杜鲁门号航母提前25年退役遭议员质问 青海省茫崖市发生5.0级地震有民众熟睡时被摇醒 同性平台也威胁美国安全?昆仑万维或被迫出售Grindr 复星前高管辞职2年首发声:已退出复星国际顶层架构 穆勒提交通俄门调查最终报告川普心情大好表示“阴云消散… 韩国瑜签50亿订单回台高雄市民举“农民爱您”标语迎接 E妹游记|在球迷的歌声中!NBA最暖心童话谢幕了 黄磊带娃散步心情好多妹钻爸爸衣服弟弟跃跃欲试 泰晤士报:英国内阁公开叛变策划威胁特里莎·梅下台 全世界都骂勇士却最爱他!这戒指他值得拥有 百望股份否认阿里腾讯联合投资A轮战略投资仅有阿里 酷我音乐回应“腾讯音乐入股”传闻:只是股东更名 2分钟从功臣变罪人!卓尔快刀破门后报复对手染红 欧拉R1女神版正式上市售价7.98万元 国足连未来都输了!韦世豪张修维们睁眼看看他! 华为是否计划裁员?郭平:外界压力让内部动力更强大 俄媒:俄空天军换装加速74%现役战机为最新装备 北村匠海小松菜奈吉沢亮共演电影演绎兄妹情缘 张勇卸任淘宝法定代表人 陈峰“复出”8个月后谈海航:今年仍是困难的一年 连个颁奖仪式都没有?亚当斯体验后补外援待遇 索尼确认关闭北京工厂系缩减成本在华还有四家工厂 许茹芸李心洁为梁咏琪庆生小黄花姐妹团感情依旧 本赛季最无悬念的奖项!韦德瞬间说出他的名字 关厂裁员福特撤离俄罗斯市场 马琳·阿姆施塔德:你们了解中国吗?你们该去中国看看 介绍对象给Selina?Hebe慨叹:自身难保 帕克将再次坐上马刺的航班!这次为了吉诺比利 美国宣布完全清除“伊斯兰国”在叙控制区 对外开放加码升级多位部委高官今天透露重磅信息 直击|饿了么口碑将建开放平台买菜业务扩至500城 万科将以29.68港元/股价格配售2.63亿H股拟筹… 去年末银行理财余额22万亿同业理财规模与占比双降 实现通胀目标遥遥无期欧元区3月CPI同比增速再下滑 ofo反腐:有离职运营人员偷卖小黄车案值超200万被捕 张碧晨因“出轨”被谢娜封杀?二人深夜互动澄清一切 Lyft上市了,它的司机们却罢工了 ClubFactory楼云:跨境电商有助于中小企业全… 蚂蚁金服拟收购恒生集团100%股权:从间接变直接持股 昨晚,苹果没有发布任何硬件 美容院销售整形假药被查老板偷偷继续\"开张\"终被捕 张卫健自曝结过三次婚:新娘是同一个 湖畔大学初心不变“校长第一课”5年都在讲同一件事 银行年报“秀”金融科技投入增长超三成 王金传:美元97震荡英国局势扑所迷离 女强男弱贾乃亮王鸥《推手》成反向“青蛙王子” 滴滴总裁探望遇害司机家属双方深夜达成补偿(视频) 特邀韓國瑜?王金平:尊重但不代表接受 巨石强森晒与性感女演员合照,胳膊比人家大腿还粗 羽生结弦:技术分输了10.986种四周跳都想挑战 《都挺好》大结局了这些隐藏的苏州美食你还不知道 國際蘭展辦慶功Kenny、Masha唱:台南的未來不… 河北建设去年盈利11.73亿元派末期息0.3元 华为副董事长胡厚崑:5G已经从蓄势待发到起跑的状态 李克强博鳌演讲:中国将进一步放宽外资市场准入 方大同不让薛凯琪上台紧密排练红馆演唱会 享骑电单车瘫痪变卖电瓶偿还员工工资 字节跳动李亮诉百度侵权胜诉:百度需刊登道歉声明