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来源:德系豪车转型共识:降巨额成本支援研发  作者:   发表时间:2019-10-23 02:07:09

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.

  Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.

  Overthelast20years,MSD’svaccineoperationsinEuropehavebeenpartofajointventurebetweenthecompaniesSanofiandMSD,calledSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD).SanofiPasteurMSD—ownedona50/50basisbySanofiPasteurandMSD—wascreatedin1994todevelopandcommercializevaccinesoriginatingfrombothcompanies’pipelinestoimproveandpromotepublichealthin19Europeancountries.Aftercarefullyconsideringourindividualstrategicpriorities,alongsidetheeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentsforvaccineoperationsintheEuropeanUnion,bothcompaniesmutuallyagreedinMarchof2016thatitisinourbestintereststomanageourvaccineproductportfoliosindependently.SanofiPasteurandMSDbelievethatreintegratingtheirrespectivevaccineportfoliosintotheircompanies’operationswillbetterpositionthemtodrivegrowth,executemoreefficiently,optimizevaccinecoverageandbringnewvaccinestomarketmorequickly.Eachcompanywillnowbeabletodefineitsownvaccinesstrategytobenefitpublichealthandcreatevalueforpatients,healthcareprofessionalsandpayers.Throughouttheyear,SPMSDanditsshareholdershavebeenfocusedonasmoothandorderlytransitionwhileachievingtheirpublichealthcaregoalsandupholdingtheircommitmentstotheiremployees,customersandbusinesspartners.Followingthistransitionalperiod,bothcompanieshaveconfirmedthatDec.31,2016willbetheofficialclosingdateoftheendoftheirvaccinesjointventureSanofiPasteurMSD(SPMSD),followingclearancesrecentlygrantedbytheEuropeanCommission.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.

  In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.TheMSDFellowshipforGlobalHealthisonewayMSDishelpinganswertheglobalhealthneedsoftheunderserved.MSDemployeeswhoparticipateintheprogramarecalledRichardT.ClarkFellows(RTCFellows)inhonorofretiredChairmanandCEORichardT.Clarkandhisphilosophyofpassion,purposeandcommitmenttocorporateresponsibility.Launchedin2012,theprogramoffersMSDemployeesopportunitiestosharetheirskillswithpeoplearoundtheworld.Asmanyas30Fellowsareselectedeachyear;theexpertiseoftheapplicantsismatchedtotheneedsofthepartnerorganizations.Duringthethree-monthassignments,theFellowsareembeddedwithinanon-profitorganizationinthefield.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.

  In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.In1987,MSD’sthenCEODr.P.RoyVagelosannounced,inanunprecedentedactofglobalhealthcareleadership,thatMSDwoulddonateivermectin–asmuchasneededforaslongasneeded–withthegoaltohelpeliminateriverblindness.MSDrecognizedinordertoreachthisgoal,manyorganizationswithuniqueskillswouldneedtoworktogetherasateam.Asaresult,MSDcreatedtheMectizanDonationProgram(MDP).OperatingfromtheAtlanta-basedTaskForceforGlobalHealth,theMDPcoordinatesactivitiesbetweenMSD,WHO,theWorldBankandarangeofpublicandprivatestakeholders.In1998,MSDexpandeditscommitmentfromtheMectizanDonationProgramtoincludedonatingivermectinforanotherdisease,lymphaticfilariasis(LF),alsoknownaselephantiasis,inAfricancountriesandYemenwhereitco-existswithriverblindness.ForLF,ivermectinisadministeredwithalbendazole,adrugdonatedbyGSK.

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.

  Overthepast125years,we’veseentheworldchangethroughthepowerofmedicineandinvention.Whileeachpivotalmilestonehasbeenunique,onethingtheyhaveincommonisthatwehaven’tdoneitalone.AtMSD,wehavealwaysbelievedthatgreatmedicalbreakthroughsrelyonteamwork–fromwithinandoutsideofMSD–andourhistoryhasprovenit.Weareproudtohaveworkedinpartnershipwithcompanies,academics,governments,patientorganizations,healthcareprofessionals,nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),multilateralorganizationsandothersintheprivatesector--tohelpimprovelivesaroundtheworldandcontinuetosolvesomeoftheworld’smostseriousillnesses.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  AfyaSerengetiProjectFormorethan15years,haspartneredwiththe(Afyameans"health"inSwahili)intheSerengetiregionofTanzaniaineasternAfrica.Wehelpprovideaccesstopreventivecare,includingrabiesvaccinationsforlocaldogs.Todate,wehavedonatedtwomillionrabiesvaccinestosupportprogramsinIndia,Malawi,SriLanka,TanzaniaandUganda.Wealsoprovidetoolssuchasall-terrainvehiclesandtentstohelpmakesuretheprojectisabletoreachthemostremotecornersoftheregion.Rabiesinhumansanddomesticanimalshasnowbeenvirtuallyeliminatedfromthisareaandhumanhospitalizationsduetorabiddogbiteshavedecreased92percent.Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”

  ELIAV:HCV[hepatitisCvirus]infectionisablood-bornedisease.Peoplebecomeinfectedwhenexposedtocontaminatedbloodproductsorcontaminatedsyringesorinjectionequipment.TheincidenceofHCVinfection(thenknownasnon-A/non-Bhepatitis)priorto1965waslow;however,therateincreasedsteadilyintothe1980s.In1988,HCVwasidentifiedandbloodsupplyscreeningforHCVbecameavailablein1992.Peoplegotinfectedandusuallydidn'tknowitbecausetheacuteinfectionistypicallyasymptomatic.Afterprolongedinfection,20to25years,orso,peoplewerepresentingwithadvancedliverdamage,whichcanleadtocirrhosisandeventuallyevenliverfailureorlivercancer.Ahugecohortofbabyboomersgotinfected,didn'tknowit,aregraduallygettingdiagnosedandfindingtheirdiseaseissoadvancedthattheyareapproachingacrisispoint.Theclockistickingonthisproblem.In2016,MSDcelebratedits125thanniversaryasaglobalhealthcareleader.Wecreatedthispageasacelebrationofouraccomplishmentsaswellastohighlightwhatwe'reexcitedaboutfortheyearstocome.Thisisanexcitingtimeforourcompanyandtheworld.Today,weareattheforefrontofinventingtoolsforthefightagainstsomeoftheworld’smosturgentglobalhealthchallenges.Thisincludesmorethan30differentcancers,hepatitisC,Alzheimer’sdisease,Ebola,antibiotic-resistantsuperbugs,cardio-metabolicdiseases,andmanyothers.HbA1c,ameasureoftheaveragelevelofbloodsugaroverthepasttwotothreemonths,helpsyouandyourdoctorseehowwellyourdiabetestreatmentplanisworking.TherecommendedHbA1c,goalformanyadultswithtype2diabetesislessthan7%;however,thismayvarydependingontheindividual.Highbloodsugarlevelsovertimecanputpeoplewithdiabetesatriskofmanyserioushealthproblems,suchasheartdisease,stroke,kidneydisease,blindnessandnerveproblems.That’swhyitisimportantforpeoplelivingwithdiabetestoworkwiththeirdoctortosetindividualizedgoalsanddevelopapersonalizeddiabetesmanagementplantomanagetheABCsofdiabetes:AforHbA1c,BforbloodpressureandCforcholesterol.

  “EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.Intheearly1990s,HedyTepplerwastreatingAIDSpatientswithHIV/AIDSatahospitalinPhiladelphia.ShewasalsoservingasaclinicaltrialinvestigatorforPhase1and2MSDstudiesofanewclassofanti-HIVdrugsdesignedtoblocktheHIVproteaseenzymeandthuspreventHIVreplication."Theearlyresultswereexciting.Inashorttime,manypatientsrespondedtotheinvestigationaltreatment,"saysHedy.HerpositiveexperienceduringtheseandsubsequentclinicaltrialswaslargelywhyshejoinedMSDin1996."Iwantedtobemoreinvolvedindrugdevelopmentandclinicaltrialdesign,andMSDwasdoingsomegroundbreakingworkinHIV,"saysHedy,whonowservesasexecutivedirector,ClinicalResearch,InfectiousDiseases,atMSDResearchLaboratories.TheyearbeforeHedyarrived,anotherprominentHIVresearcherandthoughtleaderwaskeepingaclosewatchonMSD'swork.Bach-YenNguyen,nowretired-executivedirector,sectionhead,HCVandHIV,decidedtoleavetheNationalInstitutesofHealthtoworkonMSD'sHIVresearchdevelopmentteam.Bach-YenhadspentyearstreatingAIDSpatientsandworkinginHIVresearchandsawgreatpotentialinMSD'swork."WewerefacedwithanopportunitytohelppatientsinfectedwithHIV."ForBach-Yen,whoalsomadevitalcontributionstothedevelopmentofanotheroneofMSD'smedicinesforthetreatmentofHIV,thedrug'sapprovalcontinuestobehermostmemorablemomentatMSD."Weworkedlonghours.ThereweretimeswhenIcouldn'tattendschooleventswithmyson.WhenpeopleaskedhimwhereIwas,hewouldsay,'MomisbusyhelpingpeoplewithAIDS.'Hewasonly12,butheunderstoodtheimportanceofthework."Withinafewyears,theteamachievedadditionalsuccess:In2011,theFDAapprovedachewabletabletformofthisfirstagentinanewclassofanti-HIVagentsforchildren2yearsandolder,andin2013,approvedgranulesfororalsuspensionforinfants4weeksandolder."Ourpediatricsprogramhasbeenextremelysatisfyingasthereisatremendousneedfornewanti-HIVagentsthatcanbeusedacrosstheentirepediatricagerange,"saysHedy,wholeadstheIsentresspediatricdevelopmentprogram.TheImpactofStigmatizationThesenorms,behaviors,andbeliefssurroundinghepatitisCinfectioncanleadtoalienationfromfamilyandfriends,aswellastodiscrimination(perceivedorreal)inhealthservicesandworkplaces.Indeed,manychronichepatitisCpatientsreportfeelingsofstigmatizationandsocialisolationfromtheirfriends,family,andcoworkers.WevetalkedtoHCVinfectedgrandmotherswhoseownchildrenwon’tallowthemtoplaywiththeirgrandchildrenbecausethey’reafraidofsomesortoftransmission,reportsMichaelNinburg,executivedirectoroftheHepatitisEducationProject,aSeattle-basedgroupfoundedin1993toprovideeducation,support,andadvocacyforthoselivingwithhepatitis.ArecentlydiagnosedpatientwhoworkswithMichael’sgroupechoedthissentiment.I'msuperoutgoing.ItalkabouteveryfeelingIhavetomyfriends,justaboutanybody,andmydiagnosiswassomethingIcouldnottalkabout,hesaid.IknewthatIhadtodosomethingaboutit,butIwasashamed.

  Antibioticshaverevolutionizedmedicineinmanyrespects,andcountlessliveshavebeensaved;theirdiscoverywasaturningpointinhumanhistory.Foralmostacentury,bacteria-fightingdrugsknownasantibioticshavehelpedtomanagemanyoftheharmfulbacteriathatcanmakeussick.Butinrecentdecades,theyhavebecomelesseffectiveagainstsometypesofbacteria.Currently,certainbacteriaarenowunbeatablewithtoday’smedicines.Unfortunately,newdrug-resistant“superbugs”haveemerged,whicharestrainsofbacteriathatareresistanttoseveraltypesofantibiotics.Infact,theWorldHealthOrganizationhasclassifiedthisas“aseriousthreat[that]isnolongerapredictionforthefuture,itishappeningrightnowineveryregionoftheworldandhasthepotentialtoaffectanyone,ofanyage,inanycountry.”Ourdiscoveryscientists“strivetomaketheimpossiblepossible,”saysJoeMiletich.Andheshouldknow:AstheseniorvicepresidentofDiscoveryPreclinicalandEarlyDevelopment,heleadsateamofresearcherswhoarechargedwithmakingthings“possiblethatweren’tpossiblebefore.”Hecontinues:“Webelievedrugdiscoveryisfoundationalforustocontinuebringingcriticalmedicinestotheworld.”About14,500peopleareinvolvedinscientificresearchatMSD.OurRDcolleaguesarealltaskedwiththesamemission:tosolvethepuzzlesofhumandiseasebiologyandthentranslatethosefindingsintonewtherapiesforpatients.Theyaredriventopushtheboundariesofscienceandtothentransformtheirdiscoveriesintomeaningfulnewtherapeutics.“EventhoughDr.Alzheimercharacterizedthediseasein1906,itwasn’tuntilthelastfewdecadesthatthediseasebecamerecognizedasarealillnessseparatefromnormalagingandotherformsofdementia,”saidDarryleSchoepp,Ph.D.,vicepresidentandtherapeuticareahead,Neuroscience,MSD.“Nowpeoplearelivinglonger,andwecanseehowthediseaseworks,”saidDavidMichelson,M.D.,vicepresident,ClinicalNeuroscienceResearch,MSD.“Scienceisataplacewherenotonlydoweunderstandmoreaboutit,butweareexploringwaystodosomethingaboutit.”“Newtechnologiesareallowingtheidentificationofearlydiseasesignswhichwehopewillallowustointervenepromptlyinordertosloworhaltprogression.That’stheholygrail.Whatyouwanttodoistohavesomethingthatworksandtobeabletouseitbeforethediseaserobspeopleofwhotheyreallyare,”saidDr.Michelson.

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